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英语知识:英语语言学

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英语知识:英语语言学来源于浙江中公教师网

 

一、语音学及音系学之

(一)Phonetics

Phonetics studies speech sounds, including the production of speech, how speech sounds are actually made, transmitted and received, the description and classification of speech sounds.

语音学研究人类发音的特点,特别是言语语音特征、并对语音进行描写、分类和转写。

根据图1,即言语表达过程的三个环节:说话者、空气和听话者。语音学一般分为三个分支:发音语音学(articulatory phonetics)、声学语音学(acoustic phonetics)及听觉语音学(auditory phonetics)。

在语音学中的三个分支中,发音语音学相对来说更成熟,所以在语音学中主要研究发音语音学。The articulatory apparatus of a human being are contained in three important areas: the pharyngeal cavity—the throat, the oral cavity—the mouth, and the nasal cavity—the nose.

人类的发音器包含在三个重要的位置:咽腔—喉咙,口腔—嘴,鼻腔—鼻子。英语语音分为辅音和元音,可以通过如下表巧记。

(二)Phonology

Phonology studies the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables. It deals with the sound system of a language by treating phoneme as the point of departure. There are some important definitions in phonology that we should pay more attention.

1. Minimal Pair

When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two sound combinations are said to form a minimal pair. For example, dill and kill are a minimal pair because they differ from each other by the initial sound [d] and [k].

最小对立体:如果两个词,除了出现在同一位置上的一个音以外,其余的音都相同,那么这两个词就构成了一个最小对立体。

2. Phonemic Contrast

If two phonetically similar sounds are two distinctive phonemes, they are said to form a phonemic contrast. For example, /p/ and /b/ in /pit/ and /bit/.

音位对立:两个完全不同的音素,构成音位对立。如音位/p/和/b/在音素[pit]和[bit]中是属于音位对立。

最小对立体和音位对立虽是两种不同概念,但是本质是找出语言中的音位,只是对象有所不同,最小对立体是针对两个词,而音位对立则是针对两个音素。

3. Complementary Distribution互补分布

If two phonetically similar sounds are allophones of the same phoneme, then they do not distinguish meaning, but complementary each other in distribution, i.e. they occur in different phonetic environments, they are in complementary distribution. For instance, the clear [l] always occurs before a vowel while the dark [l] always occurs between a vowel and a consonant, or at the end of a word. So the allophones are said to be in complementary distribution.

互补分布:如果两个发音相似的音是用一个音素的音位变体,他们不能区分意义,且在分布上互补的,即他们出现在不同的语音环境中,他们就是互补分布。例如,[l]和[l]都是/l/的音位变体,而[l]总是在元音前,而[l]则在元音与辅音之间,或在词尾,两者位置互补,属于互补分布。

二、例题分析

1. 【2013年上半年全国教师资格考试-英语学科知识与教学能力—初级中学】

Which of the following consonants doesn’t fall under the same category according to the voicing?

A.︱m︱ B.︱b︱ C.︱d︱ D.︱p︱

解析:考查语音学辅音知识。︱p︱属于清辅音,︱m︱,︱b︱,︱d︱属于浊辅音。故选D。

2. In terms of the place of articulation, the following sounds [t] [d] [s] [z] [n] share the feature of _____.

A. palatal B. alveolar C. bilabial D. dental

解析:以上五种音标都属于齿槽音。其它选项,palatal腭音,bilabial双唇音,dental齿音。故选B。

3.【2014年上半年全国教师资格考试-英语学科知识与教学能力—高级中学】

Sip and zip, tip and dip, map and nap are all _____.

A. minimal pairs B. diphthongs C. allophones D. phonemes

解析:考查语音学知识。最小对立对(minimal pairs)是指只有一个音素不同的一组单词。sip [sip]和zip [zip],tip [tip]和dip [dip],map [mæp]和nap [næp]都是最小对立对。其他选项,diphthong“双元音”,allophone“音位变体”,phoneme“音位,音素”,故选A。

三、总结

语言学虽说是较为抽象的理论课,内容颇多,专业术语也很多,但是在教资考试中,考生只需要了解语言学的基本知识即可,这也是我们通过对历年的教资试题的剖析而得出的结论,所以考生在教资考试过程中遇到语言学不要被这个“纸老虎”吓住,要透过语言现象看语言的本质,用正确的方法解析语言学的题目。

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